Past Tense ( Concept )
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PastTense


Thing
      |_ Abstract
            |_ Linguistic Property
                  |_ Morphosemantic Property
                        |_ Tense Property
                              |_ Past Tense


Definition:

A value of Tense Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as anterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'past', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'anterior'.

The anterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. 'Perfect' tense meanings are created when the reference point is separated and moved away from the event time, thus altering the viewing of the temporal location of the event even though the event's actual location with respect to the deictic centre remains the same.

A common instance of an anterior temporal relationship obtaining in a 'perfect' context occurs when the reference point is moved away from the event time and located instead at the moment of speech. The event time is still anterior to the moment of speech, but it is viewed against a stretch of time which began at the event and continues up to the moment of speech --- e.g. the English I have read this book, I have seen John --- hence the interpretation that the event has an effect or is in some way still relevant at the moment of speech. In some languages (e.g. English) this tense meaning is labelled as (one of the uses of the) Present Perfect, in others (e.g. Polish) this meaning may be collapsed with the 'simple' anterior meaning and labelled simply as Past.

Typically, for a tense value to be labelled as Past Tense, the tense meaning has to minimally express the anterior temporal relationship, although it may additionally express other temporal relationships or aspectual and/or modal meanings. For example, when the usage of the Past Tense value is restricted to a semantically defined domain, it is conventional to add a further qualification to the label of the Past Tense value (e.g. Past Imperfective --- when the anterior temporal relationship is necessarily combined with an aspectual meaning of the Imperfective Aspect value, and grammaticalised as a single TAM category in the language).



Language Code: tur In Turkish, the nominative is zero-marked. Also, in this language nonspecific objects do not take the accusative case.
2009-06-04 13:28:08
Hasanöküz-üaldi
Hasan-NOMox-ACCbuy-PST.3.SG
Hasan bought the ox.

References:
Blake (2001:87, 119) FROM Comrie (1989:132-6, 175-6)

Language Code: tix In Southern Tiwa, the locative passive is an oblique locative nominal that assumes the subject relation.
2009-06-04 13:28:08
in-seuan-wan-ban(na)
1.SG/3.SG.ANIM-man-come-PST(I)
The man came to me

References:
Klaiman (1991:17) FROM Allen, Gardiner and Frantz (1984:304-5)

Language Code: tur Informational verbs often have subjects which are agents, and nominal objects that are dative; the subject communicates knowledge to the object.
2009-06-04 13:28:08
MüdürHasan-amektu-ugöster-di
director-NOMHasan-DATletter-ACCshow-PST
The director showed the letter to Hasan

References:
Blake (2001:87, 119) FROM Comrie (1989:132-6, 175-6)

2009-06-04 13:28:08
Paluru=rnitjitjitjukutjuku-ngkunya-ngu
3.SG.ERG=1.SG.OBJchildsmall-ERGsee-PST
He saw me when he was a small child.
Language Code: bla Blackfoot example of plural number and animate gender.
2009-06-04 13:28:08
balangudaba?gulyara-?gubura-n
the.II.ABSdog.ABSthe.I.ERGman-ERGsee-PST
The man saw the dog.

References:
Mithun (1999:99) FROM Frantz (1991:8-9)

Language Code: tue In Tuyuca, the deductive mood signals an assumption with evidence.
2009-06-04 13:28:08
díigaapé-yi
soccerplay-3.SG.PST.DEDUCT
He played soccer (I have seen evidence that he played, but I did not see him play)

References:
Palmer (2001:36) FROM Barnes (1984) FROM Malone (1988)

Language Code: ami Realis encodes that the speaker is offering and unqualified statement of fact. The term 'realis' is synonymous with the term 'indicative' and therefore 'declarative.'
2009-06-04 13:28:08
hobu-busal-enageqo-in
pigSIM-run.out-3.SG.DIFSBJ.REAL3.PLhit-3.PL.REM.PST
They killed the pig as it ran out.

References:
Palmer (2001:5) FROM Roberts (1990)

Language Code: yak In Yakima, if the agent is more topical than the patient, the direct-active clause is used. If norm is reversed and the patient is more topical, the inverse clause is used.
2009-06-04 13:28:08
kupá-'?n-apch'íimya-npiyáp-in
andINV-tell-PSTwild.cat-OBJelder.brother-OBV
And the elder brother [OBV] told the wild cat [PROX].

References:
Givon (1994:24)

Language Code: faa 'Hearsay from a known source' is equivalent to a Secondhand Evidential in this language.
2009-06-04 13:28:08
pe-sa-ripo
come-PST-SECHAND
[I've heard] it's coming

References:
Palmer (2001:41) FROM Foley (1986) FROM May (1980)

Language Code: wyb Palmer refers to the Direct Evidential as Sensory Evidential.
2009-06-04 13:28:08
ŋindu-garagirambiyi
you-NOM-SENSEsick-PST
One can see you were sick

References:
Palmer (2001:36) FROM Donaldson (1980)

Language Code: tur In Turkish, the nominative is zero-marked. Also, in this language nonspecific objects do not take the accusative case.
2009-06-04 13:28:08
Hasanöküz-üaldi
Hasan.NOMox-ACCbuy-PST.3.SG
Hasan bought the ox

References:
Blake (2001:87, 119) FROM Comrie (1989:132-6, 175-6)

Language Code: tur Informational verbs often have subjects which are agents, and nominal objects that are dative; the subject communicates knowledge to the object.
2009-06-04 13:28:08
MüdürHasan-amektu-ugöster-di
director.NOMHasan-DATletter-ACCshow-PST
The director showed the letter to Hasan

References:
Blake (2001:87, 119) FROM Comrie (1989:132-6, 175-6)

Language Code: tue In Tuyuca, the assumptive mood signals an assumption with no evidence.
2009-06-04 13:28:08
díigaapé-hīyi
soccerplay-3.SG.PST.ASSMP
He played soccer (I assume, but I have seen no evidence of this)

References:
Palmer (2001:36) FROM Barnes (1984) FROM Malone (1988)

Language Code: wyb Palmer refers the indirect evidential as the 'reported' or 'linguistic evidential'
2009-06-04 13:28:08
ŋindu-dhangirambiyi
you-NOM-INDEVDsick-PST
You are said to have been sick

References:
Palmer (2001:36) FROM Donaldson (1980)

Language Code: cjc NO_COMMENT
2009-06-04 13:28:08
Malikaloomaxhwal‘ajeelaraoahwa‘ajoessara
Malikamountain-LATupandGEN-ascend-SENSE.PSTdownandGEN-descend-SENSE.PST
Malika climbed up and down the mountain.

References:
Good (2003:23)


PropertiesValuesDefinition

+ submit an issue User Submitted Issues