Plural Number ( Concept )
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PluralNumber


Thing
      |_ Abstract
            |_ Linguistic Property
                  |_ Morphosyntactic Property
                        |_ Number Property
                              |_ Plural Number


Definition:

PluralNumber is a number property that quantifies the denotation of the nominal element so that: 1) it specifies that there are more than one. In this English example below, plural is shown by both the noun and the verb in (2):

(1) my dog watches television
(2) my dogs watch television

[Corbett 2000: 5]

2) additionally, but not necessarily, pluralNumber may be assigned on the basis of formal properties (e.g. pluralia tantum, or measles / *measle). 3) if pluralNumber functions as generalNumber, it may specify a lack of commitment with regard to quantification ([Corbett 2000,17] notes this system does not exist in pure form, that is, no language employs it as the normal case).

Some Cushitic languages, generalNumber can be the same as singularNumber for some nouns, but the same as pluralNumber for other nouns. For example, in Arbore (arv), generalNumber may contrast with the singular in the absence of a distinct plural form: Ln Singular Ln tiis-in 'a maize cob' Ln lasa-n 'a loaf'

nebel-in 'a cock ostrich' ln General ln tíise 'maize cob(s)' ln lássa 'bread' ln nebel 'ostrich(es)' ln [Corbett 2000: 17-18]


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The meaning of pluralNumber naturally varies according to the system in which it is embedded. It can potentially mean 'more than two' or 'more than three' in languages where a dualNumber, trialNumber, paucalNumber, or other value is also present in the number system. No distinction among these narrower meanings is made within GOLD. Ln On terminology: the concept plural is occasionally called 'multiple' in descriptions of languages which have a paucalNumber, e.g. Fijian. On terminology: Under a minimal/augmented and minimal/unit-augmented systems, the label 'augmented' will map to the concept pluralNumber. Ln A note on minimal/augmented systems (and also minimal/unit-augmented/augmented). In some languages which have an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the first person, the firstPersonInclusive may use the morphology which otherwise expresses singularNumber, even though the semantics of firstPersonInclusive entail that it cannot be singular. There is an analysis of this in which the morphology is seen as representing the minimal number associated with the particular person value. Under such a system, the label 'minimal' can be mapped onto the concept singularNumber, except if one is dealing with firstPersonInclusive minimal, which would be mapped onto the concept dualNumber [Corbett 2000; Hayward 1984: 159-83] (incomplete). Ln There is an important theoretical question about whether minimal/unit-augmented/augmented should be considered separate concepts in the GOLD ontology. The main argument for this is that under such systems, the number values dual and trial are expressed only on the firstPersonInclusive by using the morphology otherwise associated with singular and dual respectively. However, as it is possible to specify a mapping from one system onto the other, we allow for a COPE to deal with this substantive issue while ensuring interoperability.


Language Code: woe First person inclusive refers to the hearer in addition to the speaker.
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Geelmegaangsibellag
youandI1.PL.INCLwillgo
You and I will go.

References:
Siewierska (2003:142)

Language Code: eus NO_COMMENT
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ama-rentzateros-id-it-u-tlore-ak
mother-SG.BENbuy-PFV3.ABS-PRS-PL-AUX.2.1.SG.ERGflower-PL.ABS
I have bought some flowers for mother

References:
Saltarelli (1988:156)

Language Code: ami This example demonstrates epistemic necessity, also known as necessary truth or presupposed truth, in that this statement presupposes that the pig will run out.
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hobu-busal-ebageqo-qag-an
pigSIM-run.out-3.SG.DS.IRR3.PLhit-3.PL.FUT
They will kill the pig as it runs out

References:
Palmer (2001:5) FROM Roberts (1990)

Language Code: crk In Plains Cree, the inverse voice signals when actions proceed from ontologically less salient to more salient participants.
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ni-sekih-iko-nanatim
1-scare-theme.INV-1.PLdog
The dog scares us.

References:
Klaiman (1991:32) FROM Wolfart (1973:25)

Language Code: bla Blackfoot example of plural number and animate gender.
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nína-iksi
man-PL.ANIM
man

References:
Mithun (1999:99) FROM Frantz (1991:8-9)

Language Code: wyb Commisive encodes that the speaker promises or threatens to perform some action (Palmer 2001: 10, 72).
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waŋa:y-ndu-galdhagurma-guyana-y-aga
NEG-2.NOM-PLcemetery-DATgo-COMM-IRR
You shall none of you go to the cemetery

References:
Palmer (2001:36)

Language Code: ami This example demonstrates epistemic necessity, also known as necessary truth or presupposed truth, in that this statement presupposes that the pig will run out.
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hobu-busal-ebageqo-qag-an
pigSIM-run.out-3.SG.DIFSBJ.IRREAL3.PLhit-3.PL.FUT
They will kill the pig as it runs out.

References:
Palmer (2001:5) FROM Roberts (1990)

Language Code: ami Realis encodes that the speaker is offering and unqualified statement of fact. The term 'realis' is synonymous with the term 'indicative' and therefore 'declarative.'
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hobu-busal-enageqo-in
pigSIM-run.out-3.SG.DIFSBJ.REAL3.PLhit-3.PL.REM.PST
They killed the pig as it ran out.

References:
Palmer (2001:5) FROM Roberts (1990)

Language Code: heb Masculine and feminine cardinal numerals usually go with masculine and feminine nouns, respectively. These nouns may be explicit or just implied.
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bikʃuxamiʃatikimve-hevénuʃiʃa
asked.3.PL5.Mbags.Mbrought.1.PL6.M
They asked for 5 bags and we brought 6.

References:
Glinert (1989:80-81)

Language Code: fuv In Nigerian Fulfulde, the exhortative is similar to the imperative command, except is only used with 1stPerson and 3rd person subject, expresses a peremptory command to begin an action that has not yet begun.
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'en-njoo?-oo
1.PL-sit-HORT
Let's sit down!

References:
McIntosh (1984:141)

Language Code: crk In Plains Cree, the direct voice signals that the action proceeds in an ontologically salient way, i.e. that salience is assigned to nominals based on their referen'ts relative real-world capacities to control situations.
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ni-sekih-a-nanatim
1-scare-theme.DIRV-1.PLdog
We scare the dog.

References:
Klaiman (1991:32) FROM Wolfart (1973:25)

Language Code: kek In Q'eqchi', the incorporating antipassive locks the P or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. This correlates with the P's morphosyntactic downgrading, whereby it becomes insusceptible to any informational salience assignment.
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x-e'-sic'-o-ccapelicui?nk
tense-3.PL.ABS-pick-ANTIP-aspectcoffeethemen
The men picked coffee.

References:
Klaiman (1991:232) FROM Berinstein (1985:219)


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