Singular Number ( Concept )
http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SingularNumber


Thing
      |_ Abstract
            |_ Linguistic Property
                  |_ Morphosyntactic Property
                        |_ Number Property
                              |_ Singular Number


Definition:

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2009-06-04 13:28:09

On terminology: the term 'singulative' is sometimes used for the concept singularNumber, especially when singularNumber is overtly expressed. 'Singulative' has been used sometimes for singularNumber in systems where singularNumber is distinct from to generalNumber. It is worth bearing in mind that the expression of number can differ cross-linguistically according to the animacy hierarchy. See numberAssignmentSystem. A note on minimal/augmented systems (and also minimal/unit-augmented/augmented). In some languages which have an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the first person, the firstPersonInclusive may use the morphology which otherwise expresses singularNumber, even though the semantics of firstPersonInclusive entail that it cannot be singular. There is an analysis of this in which the morphology is seen as representing the minimal number associated with the particular person value. Under such a system, the label 'minimal' can be mapped onto the concept singularNumber, except if one is dealing with firstPersonInclusive minimal, which would be mapped onto the concept dualNumber [Corbett 2000, 166-169] (incomplete). There is an important theoretical question about whether minimal/unit-augmented/augmented should be considered separate concepts in the GOLD ontology. The main argument for this is that under such systems, the number values dual and trial are expressed only on the firstPersonInclusive by using the morphology otherwise associated with singular and dual respectively. However, as it is possible to specify a mapping from one system onto the other, we allow for a COPE to deal with this substantive issue while ensuring interoperability.


2009-06-04 13:28:09
Dudoqueaprenda
doubt-1.SGthatlearn-3.SG.PRS.SBJV
I doubt that he is learning.
Language Code: sht Volitive mode encodes that the speaker is willing to perform some action.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
t̓á-hu·sáʔ
VOL.1.SG-talk
I'll talk

References:
Mithun (1999:499)

Language Code: spa There is no progressive marker in this Spanish example.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
Juancanta
Johnsing-3.SG
John sings.

References:
Comrie (1976:33)

2009-06-04 13:28:09
Paluru=rnitjitjitjukutjuku-ngkunya-ngu
3.SG.ERG=1.SG.OBJchildsmall-ERGsee-PST
He saw me when he was a small child.
Language Code: ltn Palmer notes that the Timitive Mood tends to be expressed with a verb of fearing plus a subjunctive verb in a subordinate clause.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
Timeonelaboremagueam
Ifearworkincrease-1.SG.PRS.SBJV
I am afraid that I shall increase my work

References:
Palmer (2001:133)

Language Code: tue In Tuyuca, the assumptive mood signals an assumption with no evidence.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
díigaapé-hīyi
soccerplay-3.SG.PST.ASSMP
He played soccer (I assume, but I have seen no evidence of this)

References:
Palmer (2001:36) FROM Barnes (1984) FROM Malone (1988)

Language Code: ami This example demonstrates epistemic necessity, also known as necessary truth or presupposed truth, in that this statement presupposes that the pig will run out.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
hobu-busal-ebageqo-qag-an
pigSIM-run.out-3.SG.DS.IRR3.PLhit-3.PL.FUT
They will kill the pig as it runs out

References:
Palmer (2001:5) FROM Roberts (1990)

Language Code: ami Realis encodes that the speaker is offering and unqualified statement of fact. The term 'realis' is synonymous with the term 'indicative' and therefore 'declarative.'
2009-06-04 13:28:09
hobu-busal-enageqo-in
pigSIM-run.out-3.SG.DIFSBJ.REAL3.PLhit-3.PL.REM.PST
They killed the pig as it ran out.

References:
Palmer (2001:5) FROM Roberts (1990)

Language Code: ygr These examples illustrate a reportedly binary, future/non-future tense system. Interlinear glosses are constructed here based on Haiman's discussion of verb stem alternations and their structures. Haiman reports that in Hua, Non-future tense is indicated by the lack of an auxiliary. Future tense is expressed with a variety of auxiliaries. The first example illustrates the Simple Indicative Future.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
hu-gu-e
do-do-FUT-IND.SG
I will do.

References:
Haiman (1980:47, 140-1)

Language Code: ygr These examples illustrate a reportedly binary, future/non-future tense system. Interlinear glosses are constructed here based on Haiman's discussion of verb stem alternations and their structures. Haiman reports that in Hua, Non-future tense is indicated by the lack of an auxiliary. This example is a Non-future tense with Interrogative Mood.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
hu-ve
do-1.Q.SG
Did I do?

References:
Haiman (1980:47, 140-1)

Language Code: tix In Southern Tiwa, the locative passive is an oblique locative nominal that assumes the subject relation.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
in-seuan-wan-ban(na)
1.SG/3.SG.ANIM-man-come-PST(I)
The man came to me

References:
Klaiman (1991:17) FROM Allen, Gardiner and Frantz (1984:304-5)

Language Code: hrv A Passive construction in Croatian which contains reflexive markings.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
ku?asegradiladvamjeseca(*ljudima)
houseREFLbuilt.3.SGtwomonths(*people.INS)
The house was built in two months (by people)/They built the house in two months.

References:
Siewierska (1988:259) FROM Spalatin (1973:121)

Language Code: kek In Q'eqchi', the focus antipassive locks the P or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. Topic salience is available for assignment to various arguments, including the P, but Focus salience is always assigned to A, and is therefore inaccessible to P or any other nominal.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
lituminla?inx-in-q'eu-o-ca?cu-er-e
themoney.TOP1.FOCtense-3.SG.ABS-give-ANTIP-aspect2.SG.ABS-DAT.RN3.SG.ERG-DAT.RN
The money, I was the one who gave it to you.

References:
Klaiman (1991:236) FROM Berinstein (1985:236)

Language Code: grc A typical function of the middle in Greek is to indicate an identity relation between the subject (or more properly, the source argument) and the direct object (or more properly, the undergoer). That is, a middle voice verb may convey reflexive or reciprocal activity.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
lou-omai
wash-MID.1.SG
I wash myself

References:
Klaiman (1998:32)

Language Code: bsw Paucal also known as 'lesser paucal' or 'small paucal' number refers to a few members of a specific class.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
luban-jaafoofe
lion-PAUCwatched-1-SG
I watched a few lions

References:
Corbett(2000:11)

Language Code: mam In Northern Mam, the logical nonsubject takes on properties typical of the basic object.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
maØ-tx'eem-attzee?t-u?ncheep
tense3.SG.ABS-cut-PASStree3.SG.ERG-by.RNJosé
The tree was cut by José.

References:
Klaiman (1991:229) FROM England (1985:201)

Language Code: djd A dual morpheme refers to exactly two.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
nanggayanguny-bi-yarluga?
who2.DU.A.3.SG.P-FUT-poke
Who do you two want to spear?

References:
Schultze-Berndt (2000:92)

Language Code: ike Bybee, et al indicate that Inuit manifests a 2-way past distinction that makes no reference to daily cycles. The two subdivisions they reference are given in the second and third examples. The first example, with the affix glossed as PERF, illustrates a past that Fortescue claims is often understood as a general experiential past without any specified time. This might be analyzed as a Simple Past.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
niri-qqammir-punga
eat-REC.PST-1.SG.IND
I ate recently.

References:
Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca (1994:99) FROM Fortescue (1984:272-3)

2009-06-04 13:28:09
nov-oetaksi
new-N.SG.NOMtaxi.N.SG.NOM
a new taxi
Language Code: bla Blackfoot example of plural number and animate gender.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
nínaa-wa
man-SG.ANIM
man

References:
Mithun (1999:99) FROM Frantz (1991:8-9)

Language Code: sht This is an example of the hortative in Shastan.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
tá-hu·sáʔ
HORT.1.SG-talk
Let me talk!

References:
Mithin (1999:499) FROM Silver (1966)

Language Code: ike NO_COMMENT
2009-06-04 13:28:09
tuqu-riikatap-puq
die-REM.PST-3.SG.IND
He died long ago.

References:
Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca (1994:99) FROM Fortescue (1984:272-3)

Language Code: cdm In Chepang, a simple Future may be expressed by suffixing /-ceʔ/ to the main verb.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
ŋa-ʔigoʔ-ceʔ-na-ŋ
1.SG-AGRcall-FUT-2-1.EXCL
I will/may call you

References:
Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca (1994:245-246) FROM Caughley (1982)

Language Code: cdm This Chepang example illustrates the use of the suffix /dhaŋ-/, in combination with tense/aspect suffixes. With the immediate future, Caughley says that the action 'is about to begin'.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
ŋa-ʔi-dhaŋyo-dhaŋ-ca-ŋʔ
1.SG-AGR-IMM.FUTlook-IMM.FUT-FUT-1.EXCL
I am about to look/I will look now.

References:
Bybee, Perkins, and Pagliuca (1994:245-246) FROM Caughley (1982)

Language Code: spn The first example above, illustrating Indicative mood, may be compared with the second, which illustrates Subjunctive mood. Here, the subjunctive is used to express doubt about a proposition.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
Creoqueaprende
believe-1.SGthatlearn-3.SG.PRS.IND
I believe that he is learning.

References:
Palmer (2001:5) FROM Klein (1975)

Language Code: tur In Turkish, the nominative is zero-marked. Also, in this language nonspecific objects do not take the accusative case.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
Hasanöküz-üaldi
Hasan-NOMox-ACCbuy-PST.3.SG
Hasan bought the ox.

References:
Blake (2001:87, 119) FROM Comrie (1989:132-6, 175-6)

Language Code: hun Here the suffix marked as PART is the same suffix used to mark the Ablative case in Hungarian.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
evettasütemény-ből
ate.3.SGthepastry-PART
S/he ate some of the pastry.

References:
Moravcsik (1978:261)

Language Code: tue In Tuyuca, the deductive mood signals an assumption with evidence.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
díigaapé-yi
soccerplay-3.SG.PST.DEDUCT
He played soccer (I have seen evidence that he played, but I did not see him play)

References:
Palmer (2001:36) FROM Barnes (1984) FROM Malone (1988)

Language Code: bla Blackfoot example of inanimate gender.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
ómahksíkimi-yi
lake-SG.INANIM
lake

References:
Mithun (1999:99) FROM Frantz (1991:8-9)

Language Code: bsw General number refers to a noun without reference to a number; it is outside the number system.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
lúban-jaafoofe
lion-GENRLwatched-1-SG
I watched lion.

References:
Corbett(2000:11)

Language Code: arc Singular number is number that refers to one member of a designated class (Crystal 1980: 245)
2009-06-04 13:28:09
aɪnš-li-a
apple-SG-INESS
inside the apple

References:
Kibrik (1998:470-1)

Language Code: pol An intransitive verb in Polish is derived from a basically transitive one with the direct object of the transitive verb corresponding to the subject of the intransitive.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
pociagzatrzyma?sie
trainstopped.3.SGREFL
The train stopped.

References:
Siewierska (1988:267) in Shibatani (1988)

Language Code: mam In Northern Mam, the transitive subject takes on properties typical of the basic object. Since in an ergative language the same morphological behaviors accrue to transitive object (P) as to intransitive subject (A), one effect of antipassivization is to dissociate the transitive subject (A) from its usual case assignment, the ergative, and reassign it the absolutive.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
maØtzyuu-ncheept-i?jch'it
tense3.SG.ABSgrab-ANTIPJosé3.SG.ERG-P.RNbird
José grabbed the bird.

References:
Klaiman (1991:229) FROM England (1985:212)

Language Code: ixi In Nebaj Ixil, the personal passive is a passive in which the argument mapped to Object in a basic structural configuration assumes the Subject relation in a corresponding nonbasic configuration.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
katil-axØnajta?nixoj
aspectsee-PASS3.SG.ABShebyshe
He was seen by her.

References:
Klaiman (1991:244) FROM Ayres (1983:22)

Language Code: tur In Turkish, the nominative is zero-marked. Also, in this language nonspecific objects do not take the accusative case.
2009-06-04 13:28:09
Hasanöküz-üaldi
Hasan.NOMox-ACCbuy-PST.3.SG
Hasan bought the ox

References:
Blake (2001:87, 119) FROM Comrie (1989:132-6, 175-6)


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