SpokenLanguage is the class of linguistic systems whose instances are expressed in speech. For every spoken language, there exists a phonological system in which the language is expressed.
||Human Language Variety||ancestorVariety is the predicate expressing the basic diachronic relationship between a language variety that existed some time in the past and a variety existing at a later time such that the former has evolved into the latter through regular language change.|
||Human Language Variety||geneticallyRelated is the basic kinship relation between languages varieties. If two language varieties are genetically related, then this implies that both varieties are derived from a common proto-language.|
||Human Language Variety||mutuallyIntelligible is the binary, symmetric relation holding between two language varieties such that speakers of the first variety can communicate with members of the second with relative ease, and vice versa.|
||Human Language Variety||parentVariety is the relation of direct genetic relatedness, where there are no intermediate ancestors between the ancestor and descendant. For example, Old English is the parent variety of Middle English.|